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When the measure is compared to another measure of the same type, they will be related (or correlated).

Returning to the selection survey example, this would mean that the surveys are administered to current employees and then correlated with their scores on performance reviews.

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A survey has content validity built into it by careful selection of which items to include (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997).

Items are chosen so that they comply with the survey specification which is drawn up through a thorough examination of the subject domain.

Construct validity is not distinct from the support for the substantive theory of the construct that the survey is designed to measure.

As such, experiments designed to reveal aspects of the causal role of the construct also contribute to construct validity evidence.

Face validity is a starting point, but should NEVER be assumed to be provably valid for any given purpose, as the “experts” have been wrong before—the Malleus Malificarum (Hammer of Witches) had no support for its conclusions other than the self-imagined competence of two “experts” in “witchcraft detection,” yet it was used as a “survey” to condemn and burn at the stake tens of thousands of women as “witches.”Criterion validity evidence involves the correlation between the survey and a criterion variable (or variables) taken as representative of the construct.

In other words, it compares the survey with other measures or outcomes (the criteria) already held to be valid.

Several different types of validity must be considered when designing and deploying survey research instruments.

Construct validity refers to the extent to which operationalizations of a construct (i.e., practical surveys developed from a theory) do actually measure what the theory says they do.

For example, to what extent is an IQ questionnaire actually measuring “intelligence”?

Construct validity evidence involves the empirical and theoretical support for the interpretation of the construct.

A survey with only one-digit numbers, or only even numbers, would not have good coverage of the content domain.

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