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For example, a person can tell that the this XML instance is invalid: We know that a motorcycle typically has two wheels and doesn't have a sunroof.

A piece of program logic, however, needs an XML schema against which it can validate XML instances.

The only difference is that assert elements are instantiated if the XPath expressions evaluates to false, while the report elements are instantiated if it evaluates to true.

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A Schematron XSLT stylesheet converts this to another stylesheet -- transforming an instance document with this resultant stylesheet then performs the validation of that instance.

A Schematron XML document consist of a schema element in the Schematron namespace: The schema element contains one or more pattern elements.

The most serious problem with DTDs is that they do not support namespaces, a critical flaw since namespaces are a very powerful aspect of XML.

The inability to validate DTD-declared XML documents with namespaces prevents XML application developers from taking advantage of namespaces in their business logic.

Rules Rule elements define a collection of constraints on a particular context in a document instance (for example, on an element or collection of elements).

This is very similar to XSLT templates, which are fired with respect to a node or group of nodes returned by an XPath expression.

They define the roles and structure of XML elements.

DTDs are written in a syntax other than XMLs' and rely upon post-processing for validation. However, DTDs are a step behind the direction XML technologies are evolving: they don't support namespaces, and they use a non-XML syntax.

I've found Schematron to be the most promising of these.

Schematron, created by Rick Jelliffe, defines a set of rules and checks that are applied to an XML instance.

Pattern elements allow the user to group schema constraints logically.

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