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The gap closures between the other groups varied as follows: Perhaps as revealing as the shift in consumer expenditure shares over the past 100 years is the wide variety of consumer items that had not been invented during the early decades of the 20th century but are commonplace today.In the 21st century, households throughout the country have purchased computers, televisions, i Pods, DVD players, vacation homes, boats, planes, and recreational vehicles.

But they still make 77 cents for every dollar a man earns. A woman deserves equal pay for equal work.[286] [287] [A]fter we controlled for all the factors included in our analysis that we found to affect earnings, college-educated women working full time earned an unexplained 7 percent less than their male peers did one year out of college.

Once we control for outside factors the wage gap between men and women shrinks considerably.

It does not include goods and services received via Medicaid, Medicare, or employer-provided health insurance, except for co-pays and out-of-pocket expenses.[92] [93] [94] [95] * The Department of Labor explains that consumers can temporarily spend more than their income by borrowing or “drawing down savings and investments.”[102] Thus, some people in the lowest income group “have expenditures that are more typical of upper-income consumers.”[103] * Between 19, the average inflation-adjusted consumer expenditures of the bottom 20% of households increased by $4,326.

This gain closed the 1989 gap between the bottom 20% and the next income group by 47%.

The unemployment rate declined partly because of an increase in the share of the population that was employed but also because of a decrease in the labor force participation rate.[332] * The labor force, as defined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, includes all people who are “either working or actively seeking work.” The potential labor force used by the Bureau to determine the labor force participation rate includes: persons 16 years of age and older residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia who do not live in institutions (for example, correctional facilities, long-term care hospitals, and nursing homes) and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.[333] [334] * “Underemployment” is a wider measure of idle potential labor than unemployment.

The broadest measure of underemployment published by the U. Bureau of Labor Statistics is called “U-6,” which includes: * In the U. during December 2016, the average cost to employers for one hour of employee work was .90, with wages and salaries accounting for 68% of costs, and benefits accounting for 32% of costs.[367] * Per the U. Department of Labor, “In the final four decades of the 20th century, employee compensation, as measured by employer costs, has undergone dramatic shifts” from cash to benefits.

The results show that including fringe benefits makes a considerable difference in the analysis of earnings differentials.

In fact, we conclude that any measure of earnings that excludes fringe benefits may produce misleading results as to the existence, magnitude, consequence, and source of market discrimination.

Because we so often confuse association and causation, it is extremely easy to be convinced that a tight relationship between two variables means that one is causing the other.

This is simply not true.[249] [250] [251] * In 2011, the EPPI-Centre at the University of London published a systematic review of 115 corruption studies which found that “corruption has negative and statistically significant effects on [economic] growth—directly and indirectly.”[256] [257] GDP per capita provides a general index of a country’s standard of living.

Purchasing power parities allow for accurate measures of economic data across countries, because they relate the prices of the same goods and services in different nations.[34] [35] * In keeping with Just Facts’ Standards of Credibility, all graphs in this research show the full range of available data, and all facts are cited based upon availability and relevance, not to slant results by singling out specific years that are different from others. Capital and business income provided 28%, and employer-paid benefits made up the remaining 11%.

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