Photoluminescence dating

Cascariolo’s phosphor evidently was a barium sulfide; the first commercially available phosphor (1870) was “Balmain’s paint,” a calcium sulfide preparation.In 1866 the first stable zinc sulfide phosphor was described.The most suitable type of sample for thermoluminescence dating is pottery, though the date gotten will be for the last time the object was fired.

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Suess effect on biomarkers used to determine sediment provenance from land-use changes.

The energy lifts the atoms of the material into an excited state, and then, because excited states are unstable, the material undergoes another transition, back to its unexcited ground state, and the absorbed energy is liberated in the form of either light or heat or both (all discrete energy states, including the ground state, of an atom are defined as quantum states).

The excitation involves only the outermost electrons orbiting around the nuclei of the atoms.

In all these phenomena, light emission does not result from the material being above room temperature, and so luminescence is often called cold light.

The practical value of luminescent materials lies in their capacity to transform invisible forms of energy into visible light.

In the most common case excitation occurs after the absorption of electromagnetic radiation.

The absorption process is identical to that which occurs during absorptiometric measurements.

It is in contrast to light emitted from incandescent bodies, such as burning wood or coal, molten iron, and wire heated by an electric current.

Luminescence may be seen in neon and fluorescent lamps; television, radar, and X-ray fluoroscope screens; organic substances such as luminol or the luciferins in fireflies and glowworms; certain pigments used in outdoor advertising; and also natural electrical phenomena such as lightning and the aurora borealis.

The pronounced afterglow aroused the interest of many learned men of that period, who gave the material other names, including phosphorus, meaning “light bearer,” which thereafter was applied to any material that glowed in the dark.

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